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How to Use a Cell Phone

Cell, or mobile, phones have dramatically increased the world's interconnectivity over the past few decades. They are portable, relatively reliable, and now include many functions that have nothing to do with communication. Cell phones are usually easy to learn and understand but some users, especially the elderly, may have trouble understanding all of the things that cell phones are now capable of. To make this easier, the basic functions of modern cell phones are listed below with short descriptions for each. Calling Calling is rather straightforward on any phone whether Read More

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AES (Rijndael)

AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is a symmetric cipher defined in Federal Information Processing (FIPS) Standard Number 197 in 2001 as the federal government approved encryption algorithm. The NSA has approved 128-bit AES for use up to SECRET level and 192-bit AES for use up to TOP SECRET level. AES is based upon the Rijndael algorithm, which was invented by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. AES specifies three approved key lengths: 128-bits, 192-bits and 256-bits. Nicolas Courtois maintains an excellent web page on the current state of attacks on AES.   Read More

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DDR3 SDRAM

DDR3 SDRAM (Double Data Rate Three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) is the third generation of DDR SDRAM. DDR3 SDRAM improves on DDR2 SDRAM in several significant ways: Higher bandwidth due to increased clock rate Reduced power consumption due to 90mm fabrication technology Pre-fetch buffer is doubled to 8 bits to further increase performance The voltage of DDR3 SDRAM DIMMs was lowered from 1.8V to 1.5V. This reduces power consumption and heat generation, as well as enabling more dense memory configurations for higher capacities. Standard DDR3 SDRAM DIMM's DDR3 SDRAM Read More

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